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16. Mars 2009  
Lad opp mobilbatteriet på sekunder

Forskere har fått opp farten til litiumbatterier.

Teknikere ved Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) har funnet en metode som åpner for raskere overføring av elektronisk energi litium-baserte batterier. Teknikerne mener dette kan føre til mindre og lettere batterier som kan lades opp på sekunder i stedet for timer.

Vanlige oppladbare litium-batterier har ifølge MIT veldig høy energitetthet, noe som gjør dem velegnet til å lagre store ladningsmengder. Ulempen med disse batteriene er at de er trege til å ta til seg og å gi fra seg energi. Dette er spesielt merkbart i elektriske biler.

"De har masse energi, så du kan kjøre i 90 km/t i lang tid, men effekten er lav. Du kan ikke akselerere raskt", sier Gerbrand Ceder, professor i materialteknikk ved MIT, i en pressemelding. Ceder har ledet arbeidet som ble presentert denne måneden i magasinet Nature.

Tradisjonelt har forskere ment at den lave effekten har skyldtes at litium-ionene, som sammen med elektroner er ansvarlige for å flytte ladning gjennom batteriet, flytter seg for langsom gjennom materialet.

Men for omtrent fem år siden oppdaget Ceder og hans kolleger at databeregninger gjort på et velkjent batterimateriale, litium-jernfosfat, viste at litium-ioner faktisk beveger seg ekstremt raskt.

"Dersom transporten av litium-ionene var så raskt, måtte det være noe annet som var problemet", forteller Ceder.

Ytterligere beregninger viste at litium-ioner kan bevege seg svært raskt gjennom materialet, men vare gjennom tunneler som er tilgjengelige fra overflaten. Dersom et litium-ion ved overflaten ligger rett foran tunnelåpninen, blir det ledet effektivt inn i tunnelen. Men dersom ionet ikke ligger rett foran åpningen, vil det ikke kunne sendes inn i tunnelen, fordi det ikke kan flyttes for å nå inngangen.

Sammen med studenten Byoungwoo Kang har Ceder funnet en måte å omgå problemet på ved å lage en ny overflatestruktur som gjør det mulig for litium-ionene å bevege seg raskt rundt på utsiden av materialet. Ceder sammenligner dette med en ringvei omkring en by. Når et ion som beveger seg langs denne ringveien og når fram til en tunnel, vil det umiddelbart ledes ned i tunnelåpningen.

Ved å bruke den nye prosesseringsteknikken, lagde de to forskerne et lite batteri som kunne lades helt opp eller helt ut på mellom 10 og 20 sekunder, mens det tar seks minutter å gjøre det samme med en celle lages av ikke-prosessert materiale.

Muligheten til å lade opp eller lade ut batterier på sekunder i stedet for timer, kan åpne for nye teknologiske bruksområder og forårsake livsstilsendringer, skriver Ceder og Kang i Nature-artikkelen.

Ifølge Ceder skal det nye materialet degraderes i mye mindre grad enn andre batterier under gjentatt opp- og utladning. Dette skal kunne føre til mindre og lettere batterier, siden mindre materiale er nødvendig for å oppnå det samme resultatet.

Forskerne ser for seg at det først og fremst er mindre batterier som vil kunne dra nytte av den nye teknikken, selv om den også kan brukes for å oppnå raskere opplading av elektriske biler. Årsaken er at det er begrenset hvor mye strøm som til enhver tid kan leveres via strømnettet i private hjem.

Ceder mener at den nye prosesseringteknikken vil kunne bli tatt i bruk i batterier som kommer på markedet innen to til tre år. Teknikken har foreløpig blitt lisensiert ut til to selskaper.

Via digi.no.

Nytt [14:55]


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